What Is SAML 2.0

The OASIS Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) is a standard that uses an XML-based framework to describe and exchange security information between online entities.

SAML 2.0 supports:

Web-Based Single Sign-On
It provides a standard vendor-independent grammar and protocol for transferring information about a user from one web server to another, independent of the server DNS domains.
Identity federation

It allows partner services to agree on and establish a common name identifier for the user to share information about themselves across organizational boundaries.

This type of sharing helps to reduce identity management costs.

Federated identity implements FIPS 201 to define a US Government-wide interoperable identification credential, known as the Personal Identity Verification (PIV), for controlling physical access to federal facilities and logical access to federal information systems.

The CAC PIV card is a multi-application smart card for PIV Cardholder authentication that contains a linear barcode, two-dimensional barcode, magnetic stripe, color digital photograph, and printed text. It serves as a token for:

  • Logical access to computer systems
  • Personnel identification
  • Physical access to buildings
  • Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI) for signing, encryption, and non-repudiation.
Web services and other industry standards
SAML allows its security assertion format to be used outside a "native" SAML-based protocol context. This modularity has proved useful to other industry efforts addressing authorization services (IETF, OASIS), identity frameworks, web services (OASIS, Liberty Alliance), and so on.